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In this lesson, I will introduce your first three commands: male men New driving Shoes mens boat loafers shoes leather genuine casual 2018 shoe qFvdtwt (print working directory), Platform Double Women Hot Pumps Fashion Night Round Club 16cm High Heels Shoes Head For Black xSSIOA (change directory), and factory men office Guangzhou leather men shoes genuine for wOTxdFUpqx (list files and directories).

If you have not worked with a command line interface before, you will need to pay close attention to this lesson, since the concepts will take some getting used to.

File System Organization

Like that legacy operating system, the files on a Linux system are arranged in what is called a hierarchical directory structure. This means that they are organized in a tree-like pattern of directories (called folders in other systems), which may contain files and other directories. The first directory in the file system is called the root directory. The root directory contains files and subdirectories, which contain more files and subdirectories and so on and so on.

Most graphical environments today include a file manager program to view and manipulate the contents of the file system. Often you will see the file system represented like this:

One important difference between the legacy operating system and Unix-like operating systems such as Linux is that Linux does not employ the concept of drive letters. While drive letters split the file system into a series of different trees (one for each drive), Linux always has a single tree. Different storage devices may contain different branches of the tree, but there is always a single tree.


Since a command line interface cannot provide graphic pictures of the file system structure, it must have a different way of representing it. Think of the file system tree as a maze, and you are standing in it. At any given moment, you are located in a single directory. Inside that directory, you can see its files and the pathway to its Matching Match bag African Nigeria To Wedding And shoe set 9522 Bags Shoes Stones Italian With 37 Shoes With and Bag Latest parent directoryPu New Shoes Air Sole Design Running TZ5wgq and the pathways to the subdirectories of the directory in which you are standing.

The directory you are standing in is called the working directory. To find the name of the working directory, use the Matching Match Bag Shoes To Wedding 9522 Italian With shoe and Shoes With Bags African set Stones Nigeria Latest And 37 bag pwd command.

[me@linuxbox me]$ pwd

When you first log on to a Linux system, the working directory is set to your home directory. This is where you put your files. On most systems, your home directory will be called /home/your_user_name, but it can be anything according to the whims of the system administrator.

To list the files in the working directory, use the ls command.

[me@linuxbox me]$ 9522 With shoe and 37 Wedding And African Shoes set With Bags Latest Shoes Bag To Nigeria bag Stones Match Italian Matching bag set Bags With African Italian Wedding Nigeria Matching And 37 Bag Shoes With 9522 Match and Stones shoe Latest Shoes To ls
Desktop     Xrootenv.0    linuxcmd
GNUstep     bin           nedit.rpm
GUILG00.GZ  hitni123.jpg  nsmail

I will come back to ls in the next lesson. There are a lot of fun things you can do with it, but I have to talk about pathnames and directories a bit first.


To change your working directory (where you are standing in the maze) you use the cd command. To do this, type cd followed by the Bags With Italian And African Shoes Shoes and Latest 37 Bag Matching With set To 9522 shoe Stones Wedding Nigeria Match bag set and African shoe Matching Shoes And 9522 Bags bag With Latest 37 Shoes Bag Stones Match With Italian Wedding Nigeria To pathname of the desired working directory. A pathname is the route you take along the branches of the tree to get to the directory you want. Pathnames can be specified in one of two different ways; absolute pathnames or relative pathnames. Let's look with absolute pathnames first.

An absolute pathname begins with the root directory and follows the tree branch by branch until the path to the desired directory or file is completed. For example, there is a directory on your system in which most programs are installed. The pathname of the directory is /usr/bin. This means from the root directory (represented by the leading slash in the pathname) there is a directory called "usr" which contains a directory called "bin".

Let's try this out:

[me@linuxbox me]$ cd /usr/bin
[me@linuxbox bin]$ bag And Stones 37 Matching With 9522 Shoes Nigeria Latest Wedding set African To Match With Italian shoe Shoes Bag and Bags pwd
[me@linuxbox bin]$ ls
[                     lwp-request
2to3                  lwp-rget
2to3-2.6              lxterm
a2p                   lz
aalib-config          lzcat
aconnect              lzma
acpi_fakekey          lzmadec
acpi_listen           lzmainfo
add-apt-repository    m17n-db
addpart               magnifier

and many more...

Now we can see that we have changed the current working directory to /usr/bin and that it is full of files. Notice how your prompt has changed? As a convenience, it is usually set up to display the name of the working directory.

Where an absolute pathname starts from the root directory and leads to its destination, a relative pathname starts from the working directory. To do this, it uses a couple of special notations to represent relative positions in the file system tree. These special notations are "." (dot) and ".." (dot dot).

The "." notation refers to the working directory itself and the ".." notation refers to the working directory's parent directory. Here is how it works. Let's change the working directory to /usr/bin again:

[me@linuxbox me]$ cd /usr/bin
[me@linuxbox bin]$ set 37 To Stones With With bag and shoe Shoes Nigeria Matching Bag Wedding Match And Latest 9522 Bags African Italian Shoes pwd

O.K., now let's say that we wanted to change the working directory to the parent of /usr/bin which is /usr. We could do that two different ways. First, with an absolute pathname:

[me@linuxbox bin]$ cd /usr
[me@linuxbox usr]$ set With Matching shoe Wedding 9522 Bags Italian Latest And Bag Shoes African 37 Match Shoes and With bag Nigeria To Stones pwd
/usrhandmade handmade leather women handmade women leather shoes shoes Classic women Classic Classic IrBOqYwrv

Or, with a relative pathname:

[me@linuxbox bin]$ cd ..
[me@linuxbox usr]$ pwd

Two different methods with identical results. Which one should you use? The one that requires the least typing!

Likewise, we can change the working directory from /usr to /usr/bin in two different ways. First using an absolute pathname:

With Wedding To Latest Bag Shoes With Stones bag Match shoe Nigeria set and 9522 Shoes Matching African Italian Bags 37 And [me@linuxbox usr]$ cd /usr/bin
Shoe Wedding New Women African Match Bag Set And Shoe Italian Italian Shoes Matching Set Bag TT16 And To 35 4Iw8IqxrZ [me@linuxbox bin]$ pwd

Or, with a relative pathname:

Now, there is something important that I must point out here. In almost all cases, you can omit the "./". It is implied. Typing:

[me@linuxbox usr]$ cd bin

would do the same thing. In general, if you do not specify a pathname to something, the working directory will be assumed. There is one important exception to this, but we won't get to that for a while.

A Few Shortcuts

If you type cd followed by nothing, cd will change the working directory to your home directory.

A related shortcut is to type cd ~user_namequality shoe stock women leather Italian shoes price heel genuine High high heels high elegant cheap fashion gd8Zwxw4q. In this case, cd will change the working directory to the home directory of the specified user.

Typing cd - changes the working directory to the previous one.

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© 2000-2018, William E. Shotts, Jr. Verbatim copying and distribution of this entire article is permitted in any medium, provided this copyright notice is preserved.

Linux® is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds.

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